1. Ibn Haukal (943-978 AD)-Traveled extensively in last 30 years. Noted people in considerable numbers in equatorial regions. “A book of routes & realms”. Said that the Caspian is not connected to the Northern Sea by channel.
2. Al Balkhi - First climatic Atlas of the world. “Kitab-al-Ashkal”
3. Al-Masudi - Monsoon description. Described evaporation & condensation. Kitab-Miraj-al Dhahab, Kitab-al-Tanbhwal Ishraf, Kitab-Akhbar-al-Zaman & Kitab-al-Ausat. Divided the world into 7 regions based on languges.
4. Al-Maqdisi - Division of world into 14 climatic regions. Noticed that meridians also affect climate. Southern hemisphere was open ocean
5. Al- Biruni (973-1039 AD) - “Kitab-al-Hind”- Geography of India in which he described significance of rounded stone. Tides caused by moons. Towards the south pole night ceases to exist. Himalayas source of perennial river
6. Ibn Sina or Avicenna - Knowledge of Landforms – Mountain streams cutting down the valley in Central Asia. Mountains are raised & immediately exposed to erosional process. ‘Fossils’- Nature efforts to create life ending in Failure
7. Al Idrisi at Palermo - Extensive correction of erroneous ideas handed down from Ptolemy Corrects idea of enclosed Indian ocean & Caspian sea as gulf. Position of Danube, Niger-Correction of several mountain ranges
8. Ibn-Batuta - Confirmed Ibn Haukal that equatorial region was habitable. Served Mongol emperor at Delhi. Visited China, Ceylon, Sumatra, Maldives. Covered 75000 miles – a world record. Descried the
house types & building materials in deserts.
9. Ibn-Khaldun - Emphasized & wrote on man-environment relationship. Repeated the mistake of uninhabitable equatorial zone.