1. Friedrich Ratzel (1844-1904 AD) - Worked at university of Munich & Leipzig. Application of Darwin’s concept to human species called ‘Social Darwinism’. Studied modes of life of Germans outside Germany. Published two books on N. America. ‘Anthropogeographie’ talked about the effects of different physical features on the life of people. Coined the term “Anthropogeography” Protagonist of Determinism. Wrote ‘Political Geography’ where he compared state to an organism & persuaded Germany to expand. It was his policy of ‘Lebensraum’ or living space that urged to expand-Organic
theory of State. It earned him the title of ‘founder of political geography’. He also gave the stages through which human society passes.
2. Oscar Peschel - First professor at university of Leipzig after Ritters death. Editor of ‘Das Ausland’ & wrote ‘Geschichte der Erdkunde’. Contributed very much to the development of geomorphology through a study of relief types.
3. Ferdinand Von Richthofen - First to identify “Loess” in China. His studies of China were published in
4. Alfred Hettner - Disciple of Ratzel & Richthofen. Revived the concept of geography as chorology. Published ‘Geography: Its history character & methods’. Supported Possibilism. Geography as “Landshatskunde” (landscape science) became popular during his period.
5. Otto Schluter - Hettner-Schluter controversy. It was Schluter who applied the term ‘Landshaftskunde’ to describe the concept of geography. He objected to chorological definition of geography.
6. Albrecht Penck - First use of the term ‘geomorphology’. Penck’s ideas inspired Koppen.